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ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Determination of Risk Factors on Newborn Hearing Loss
Yenidoğan İşitme Kayıplarında Risk Faktörlerinin Belirlenmesi
Received Date : 18 May 2020
Accepted Date : 25 Aug 2020
Available Online : 30 Oct 2020
Doi: 10.24179/kbbbbc.2020-76445 - Makale Dili: EN
KBB ve BBC Dergisi. 2021;29(1):13-9
Copyright © 2020 by Turkey Association of Society of Ear Nose Throat and Head Neck Surgery. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
ABSTRACT
Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the number of patients who did not pass the O-ABR test while being screened at the hearing screening center of our hospital and applied to the reference center, the degree of hearing loss, the effect of risk factors on hearing loss, and the age of their devices. Material and Methods: The study included 5,552 infants screened at the hearing screening center. The results of the diagnostic tests performed at the screening and reference center were compiled retrospectively with risk factors. Results: While 5,368 (96.7%) of infants did not present with any risk factors, 184 (3.3%) presented with one or more. 267 (4.8%) of the infants who did not pass the O-ABR test in the screening center applied to the reference center, while 254 of the infants who applied to the reference center passed the tests, a total of 13 (1 unilateral, 12 bilateral) (0.23%) were diagnosed with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). There were no risk factors found in five of the infants diagnosed with SNHL, while eight had one or more risk factor. The rate of hearing loss was found to be statistically significant in infants exhibiting risk factors. Conclusion: O-ABR is a screening test which works in a short time when applied to a sleepy or calm baby. In the current study, the hearing loss ratio was found 23.2 times more in babies with risk factors comparing babies without risk factors. The most common risk factors were family history of hearing loss and intensive care unit admission. However, for babies in the intensive care unit, as they have various risk factors and the effect of medications and interventions during hospitalization can make the reason of hearing loss more complicated.
ÖZET
Amaç: Çalışmanın amacı, hastanemiz işitme tarama merkezinde O-ABR ile taranan ve kalan bebeklerden referans merkezine başvuranların sayısı işitme kayıplarının derecesi, risk faktörlerinin işitme kaybına etkisi ve cihazlanma yaşlarının tespit edilmesidir. Gereç ve Yöntemler: Çalışmaya işitme tarama merkezinde taranan 5.552 bebek dâhil edildi. Tarama ve referans merkezinde yapılan tanısal testlerin sonuçları, risk faktörleriyle beraber retrospektif olarak derlendi. Bulgular: Bebeklerin 5.368 (%96,7)’inde herhangi bir risk faktörü bulunmazken; 184 (%3,3)’ünde bir veya birden çok risk faktörü mevcuttu. Tarama merkezinde, O-ABR testini geçemeyen bebeklerden 267 (%4,8)’si referans merkezine başvurdu. Referans merkezine başvuran bebeklerin 254’ü testleri geçerken; 1 bebeğe tek taraflı, 12 bebeğe çift taraflı olmak üzere toplam 13 (%0,23) bebeğe sensörinöral işitme kaybı (SNİK) tanısı konuldu. SNİK tanısı alan bebeklerin 5’inde herhangi bir risk faktörü bulunmazken 8’inde bir veya birden çok risk faktörü mevcuttu. Risk faktörü bulunan bebeklerde işitme kaybı görülme oranı istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bulundu. Sonuç: Yenidoğanların işitme tarama testlerinin yaşamın ilk ayında tamamlanması, ilk 3 ay içinde tanılanması ve 6 ay içinde de cihazlandırılıp rehabilitasyonlarına başlanması önerilmektedir. Risk faktörü bulunan bebeklerde işitme kaybı oranın yüksek olduğu bilinmektedir. İşitme kaybı bulunan bebeklere erken tanı konması ve tedavilerine erken başlanması, bebeklerin konuşma-dil, sosyal, duygusal gelişimlerine ve akademik başarılarına katkı sağlamaktadır.
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